DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2075-7190.46.213240

ОСОБЛИВОСТІ ПРОЦЕСУ РАДИКАЛІЗАЦІЯ СУСПІЛЬСТВА

Олена Миколаївна Кіндратець

Анотація


Вивчено різні підходи до визначення радикалізації, її видів і моделей. Особлива увага приділяється вивченню причин радикалізації суспільства. З’ясовано, що радикалізація суспільства можлива в країнах з різним політичним режимом. Підкреслю­ється важливість і необхідність багатофакторного підходу до вивчення процесу радикалізації. Наведено конкретні приклади радикалізації, що підтверджують іс­нування причинно-наслідковихзв’язків в політичних процесах.


Ключові слова


радикалізація; процес радикалізації; моделі радикалізації; причини радикалізації; дерадикалізація; контррадикалізація

Посилання


Schmid, A. P. (2013). Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. ICCT Research Paper. 97 р. Retrieved from http://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Schmid-Radicalisation-De-Radicalisation- Counter-Radicalisation-March-2013.pdf

Borum, R. (2012). Rethinking radicalization. Journal of Strategic Security, 4, 1-6. Retrieved from https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1150&context=jss

Vidino, L. (2010). Countering Radicalization in America: Lessons from Europe. Special Report 262. Retrieved from https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/ SR262%20-%20Countering_Radicalization_in_America.pdf

Dawson, L. (2019). Clarifying the Explanatory Context for Developing Theories of Radicalization: Five Basic Considerations. Journal for deradicalization, 18, 146-184. Retrieved from https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/191/145

Dawson, L. (2017). Sketch of a Social Ecology Model for Explaining Homegrown Terrorist Radicalisation. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague. ICCT Research Note. No 1. Retrieved from https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ ICCT-Dawson-Social-Ecology-Model-of-Radicalisation-Jan2017-2.pdf

Crettiez, X. (2016). Thinking about radicalization. A Processual Sociology of the Variables of Violent Engagement. Revue frangaise de science politique, 66(5), 709-727. Retrieved from https://www.cairn-int.info/revue-revue-francaise-de-science-politique- 2016-5-page-709.htm#

McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2017). Understanding Political Radicalization: The Two-Pyramids Model. American Psychologist, 72(3), 205-216. Retrieved from https:// www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-amp0000062.pdf

Bartlett, J., & Miller, C. (2012). The Edge of Violence: Towards Telling the Difference Between Violent and Non-Violent Radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(1), 1-21.

Bj0rgo, T. (2016). Counter-terrorism as crime prevention: a holistic approach. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 8(1), 25-44.

Bacaj, E., Dumi, A., & £elo, e. (2015). Main Principles and Importance in Combating Terrorism at Nowdays Worldwide Focus Today. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 54-61. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/282602496_Main_Principles_and_Importance_in_Combating_Terrorism_ at_Nowdays_Worldwide_Focus_Today

Abdullah, W. J. (2017). Merits and Limits of Counter-ideological Work Against Terrorism: A Critical Appraisal. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 28(2), 291-308.

Argomaniz, J., & Vidal-Diez, A. (2015). Examining Deterrence and Backlash Effects in Counter-terrorism: The Case of ETA. Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(1), 160-181.

Smith, A. G. (2018). How Radicalization to Terrorism Occurs in the United States: What Research Sponsored by the National Institute of Justice Tells Us. Washington: U. S. Department of Justice; Office of Justice Programs; National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250171.pdf

Behr, Von I., Reding, A., Edwards, C., & Gribbon, L. (2013). Radicalisation in the digital era. The use of the internet in 15 cases of terrorism and extremism. Cambridge, UK; Brussels, BE: RAND Europe. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/ rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR453/RAND_RR453.pdf

Schlegel, L. (2018). Online-Radicalisation: Myth or Reality? Konrad-Adenauer- Stiftung e. V. Facts & Findings. Counter-terrorism and Internal Security, 314. Retrieved from https://www.kas.de/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=baca4877-ac6c-4df4-ae77- 28b4ba2aafac&groupId=252038

Alava, S. (2018). Internet est-il un espace de radicalisation? Terminal, 123. Retrieved from https://journals.openedition.org/terminal/3347

Odag, O., Leiser, A., & Boehnk, K. (2019). Reviewing the Role of the Internet in Radicalization Processes. Journal for deradicalization, 21, 261-300. Retrieved from https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/289/197

Howard, T., Poston, B., & Benning, S. D. (2019). The Neurocognitive Process of Digital Radicalization: A Theoretical Model and Analytical Framework. Journal for deradicalization, 19, 122-146. Retrieved from https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/ article/view/217/157

Ali, R. B. M., Moss, S. A., Barrelle, K., & Lentini, K. (2017). Initiatives that Counter Violent Radicalization but are Perceived as Suitable by Targeted Communities. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32(1), 43-55.

Doosje, B., Moghaddam, F. M., Kruglanski, A. W., de Wolf, A., Mann, L., Feddes, A. R. (2016). Terrorism, radicalization and de-radicalization. Current Opinion in Psychology, 11, 79-84. Retrieved from https://nvvb.nl/media/cms_page_media/694/ Terrorism%2C%20radicalization%20and%20de-radicalization.pdf

Josefsson, T., Nilsson, M., & Borell, K. (2017). Muslims Opposing Violent Radicalism and Extremism: Strategies of Swedish Sufi Communities. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 37(2), 183-195.

Pistone, I., Eriksson, E., Beckman, U., Mattson, C., & Sager, M. (2019). A scoping review of interventions for preventing and countering violent extremism: Current status and implications for future research. Journal for deradicalization, 19, 1-84. Retrieved from https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/213/153

Freeman, E. A. (1873). Comparative politics: six lectures read before the Royal Institution in January and February, 1873 : with The unity of history : the Rede Lecture read before the University of Cambridge, May 29, 1872. London: Macmillan.

Algan, Y., Beasley, E., Cohen, D., Foucault, M., & Peron, M. (2019). Qui sont les Gilets jaunes et leurs soutiens? Observatoire du Bien-etre du CEPREMAP et CEVIPOF, 2019-03. Retrieved from http://www.cepremap.fr/depot/2019/02/2019-03-Qui-sont- les-Gilets-jaunes-et-leurs-soutiens-1.pdf


Пристатейна бібліографія ГОСТ


  1. Schmid A. P. Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. ICCT Research Paper. March 2013. 97 р. URL: http://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Schmid-Radicalisation-De-Radicalisation- Counter-Radicalisation-March-2013.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  2. Borum R. Rethinking radicalization. Journal of Strategic Security. 2012. No 4. Р. 1-6. URL: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1150&context=jss (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  3. Vidino L. Countering Radicalization in America: Lessons from Europe. Special Report 262. November 2010. URL: https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/ SR262%20-%20Countering_Radicalization_in_America.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  4. Dawson L. Clarifying the Explanatory Context for Developing Theories of Radicalization: Five Basic Considerations. Journal for deradicalization. 2019. Spring. Nr 18. Р. 146-184. URL: https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/191/145 (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  5. Dawson L. Sketch of a Social Ecology Model for Explaining Homegrown Terrorist Radicalisation. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague. ICCT Research Note. No 1. January 2017. URL: https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ ICCT-Dawson-Social-Ecology-Model-of-Radicalisation-Jan2017-2.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  6. Crettiez X. Thinking about radicalization. A Processual Sociology of the Variables of Violent Engagement. Revue frangaise de science politique. 2016. Vol. 66, Issue р. 709-727. URL: https://www.cairn-int.info/revue-revue-francaise-de-science- politique-2016-5-page-709.htm# (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  7. McCauley C., Moskalenko S. Understanding Political Radicalization: The Two- Pyramids Model. American Psychologist. 2017. Vol. 72, No. 3. Р. 205-216. URL: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-amp0000062.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  8. Bartlett J., Miller C. The Edge of Violence: Towards Telling the Difference Between Violent and Non-Violent Radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence. 2012. Vol. 24, Issue 1. Р 1-21.
  9. Bj0rgo T. Counter-terrorism as crime prevention: a holistic approach. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression. 2016. Vol. 8, Issue 1. P. 25-44.
  10. Bacaj E., Dumi A., £elo E. Main Principles and Importance in Combating Terrorism at Nowdays Worldwide Focus Today. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2015. Vol. 6, No 4. P. 54-61. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282602496_ Main_Principles_and_Importance_in_Combating_Terrorism_at_Nowdays_ Worldwide_Focus_Today (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  11. 11. Abdullah W. J. Merits and Limits of Counter-ideological Work Against Terrorism: A Critical Appraisal. Small Wars & Insurgencies. 2017. Vol. 28, Issue 2. P. 291-308.
  12. 12. Argomaniz J., Vidal-Diez A. Examining Deterrence and Backlash Effects in Counter­terrorism: The Case of ETA. Terrorism and Political Violence. 2015. Vol. 27, Issue 1. P. 160-181.
  13. Smith A. G. How Radicalization to Terrorism Occurs in the United States: What Research Sponsored by the National Institute of Justice Tells Us. Washington: U. S. Department of Justice; Office of Justice Programs; National Institute of Justice, 2018. 23 p. URL: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250171.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  14. Behr Von I., Reding A., Edwards C., Gribbon L. Radicalisation in the digital era. The use of the internet in 15 cases of terrorism and extremism. Cambridge, UK; Brussels, BE: RAND Europe, 2013. 59 p. URL: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/ research_reports/RR400/RR453/RAND_RR453.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  15. Schlegel L. Online-Radicalisation: Myth or Reality? Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V. Facts & Findings. Counter-terrorism and Internal Security. September 2018. No. 314. 8 p. URL: https://www.kas.de/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=baca4877-ac6c- 4df4-ae77-28b4ba2aafac&groupId=252038 (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  16. Alava S. Internet est-il un espace de radicalisation? Terminal. 2018. Numeros 123. URL: https://journals.openedition.org/terminal/3347 (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  17. Odag O., Leiser A., Boehnke K. Reviewing the Role of the Internet in Radicalization Processes. Journal for deradicalization. 2019/20 Winter. Nr 21. Р. 261-300. URL: https://joumals.sfu.ca/jd/mdex.php/jd/article/view/289/197 (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  18. Howard T., Poston B., Benning S. D. The Neurocognitive Process of Digital Radicalization: A Theoretical Model and Analytical Framework. Journal for deradicalization. 2019 Summer. Nr 19. Р. 122-146. URL: https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/ index.php/jd/article/view/217/157(accessed: 11.08.2020).
  19. Ali R. B. M., Moss S. A., Barrelle K., Lentini K. Initiatives that Counter Violent Radicalization but are Perceived as Suitable by Targeted Communities. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. 2017. Vol. 32, Issue 1. P.43-55.
  20. Doosje B., Moghaddam F. M., Kruglanski A. W., de Wolf A., Mann L., Feddes A. R. Terrorism, radicalization and de-radicalization. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2016. Vol. 11. P. 79-84. URL: https://nvvb.nl/media/cms_page_media/694/ Terrorism%2C%20radicalization%20and%20de-radicalization.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  21. Josefsson T., Nilsson M., Borell K. Muslims Opposing Violent Radicalism and Extremism: Strategies of Swedish Sufi Communities. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 2017. Vol. 37, Issue 2. P. 183-195.
  22. Pistone I., Eriksson E., Beckman U., Mattson C., Sager M. A scoping review of interventions for preventing and countering violent extremism: Current status and implications for future research. Journal for deradicalization. 2019 Summer. Nr 19. P. 1-84. URL: https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/213/153 (accessed: 11.08.2020).
  23. Freeman E. A. Comparative politics: six lectures read before the Royal Institution in January and February, 1873 : with The unity of history : the Rede Lecture read before the University of Cambridge, May 29, 1872. London: Macmillan, 1873. vii, 522 p.
  24. Algan Y., Beasley E., Cohen D., Foucault M., Peron M. Qui sont les Gilets jaunes et leurs soutiens? Observatoire du Bien-etre du CEPREMAP et CEVIPOF, n 2019-03, 14 Fevrier 2019. URL: http://www.cepremap.fr/depot/2019/02/2019-03-Qui-sont-les- Gilets-jaunes-et-leurs-soutiens-1.pdf (accessed: 11.08.2020).


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ISSN (печать): 2075-7190 ISSN (Online): 2663-5704